The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially titled the UK`s withdrawal agreement from Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community. is a treaty signed on 24 January 2020 between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK)  which sets the conditions for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019 and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the withdrawal agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019. After further negotiations between the UK and the EU, a revised withdrawal agreement was reached on 17 October.  Two days later, a special session of Parliament (called „Super Saturday“ by the media) was held to discuss the new agreement.    MEPs adopted the Second Amendment Letwin 322 to 306, which had refused Parliament`s approval until the adoption of legislation to implement the agreement, and forced the government to ask the EU to delay Brexit until 31 January 2020.  The amended amendment was then adopted by MPs without a vote, as the government had accepted the de facto defeat.  On 21 October, House of Commons spokesman John Bercow rejected a government request to hold a vote on the Brexit deal, citing his earlier decision to withdraw it.
 Parliamentary votes on Brexit, sometimes referred to as „smart votes,“ are parliamentary votes under Section 13 of the United Kingdom`s European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, which requires the UK government to submit a amendeable parliamentary motion to ratify the Brexit withdrawal agreement at the end of negotiations between the government and the European Union, in accordance with Article 50.   Parliament will have to approve any future relationship agreement. If such an agreement deals with powers that the EU shares with member states, national parliaments must also ratify it. MPs are now voting on the request for a programme that sets the timetable for parliament`s submission of the legislation by 31 January. Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement.  The agreement also provides for a transitional period that will last until 31 December 2020 and may be extended by mutual agreement.