6. Anderson JE, Yotov YV. Terms of trade and the effects of free trade agreements on global efficiency, 19902002. J Int Econ. (2016) 99:279–98. doi: 10.1016/j.jinteco.2015.10.006 China is the only G20 member to have a negative BTA impact index on ti for export ties with its partners. This observation would be consistent with the assumption that China pursues a different objective in its trade agreement negotiations than most other countries. The lack of a sustained increase in China`s IT vis-à-vis its partners can be explained by two predominant facts: first, China had already enjoyed easy access to its partners` more open markets, as in the case of Hong Kong, before the implementation of the relevant BTAs . On the other hand, since the 1990s, China has steadily increased both the number of trading partners and the volume of its international trade. As a result of these developments, China`s BCAs have not triggered a disproportionate and sustained increase in bilateral trade with its counterparties compared to China`s other business activities. On the other hand, as China has gradually gained economic importance for its partners, its motivation to negotiate BTAs may have explicitly included the strategic objective of increasing its economic and political influence among its trading partners. 5.
Cipollina M, Salvatici L. Mutual trade agreements in gravitational models: a meta-analysis. Reverend Int Econ. (2010) 18:63-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9396.2009.00877.x Figure 3. The export (Πout, above) and import links of the country (Πin, below) are indicated. The red values indicate that, on average, the relative importance of partners for the respective countries has increased. The average is adopted by all trading partners with which a particular country implemented an FTA between 1995 and 2008. There is therefore a significant legal vacuum regarding the existence of special and differential treatment for developing countries in WTO rules for North-South agreements, although it is precisely in these agreements that developing countries would most likely need some flexibility. For future EPAs to be legally valid and economically viable, it is essential that developing countries that conclude mutual trade agreements with trading partners of developed countries receive special and differential treatment and that this treatment is firmly integrated into the relevant WTO rules.
This report examines how special and differential treatment can be incorporated into WTO rules for North-South regional trade agreements, in particular Article XXIV of the GATT 1994, and makes some proposals for the inclusion of special and differential treatment in WTO rules, in particular Article XXIV of the GATT 1994, which would allow future EPAs to give ACP States more flexibility in carrying out the assessment of WTO compliance. Possible. These adjustments could be made in the context of multilateral trade negotiations on WTO rules within the framework of the Doha Work Programme adopted by the Fourth WTO Ministerial Conference. The efforts of the ACP States and the EU in this regard require the Parties to develop their negotiating objectives on new trade arrangements as well as their participation in multilateral trade negotiations in order to promote the objectives of WTO-compatible agreements flexibly for ACP States in a coherent and mutually supportive manner. .